Timothy  Crombleholme, M.D.

Primary Specialty:

Pediatric Surgery

Related Conditions:

Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia, Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome, Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation, Bladder Outlet Obstruction, TRAP Sequence, Myelomeningocele, Sacrococcygeal Teratoma, Abdominal Wall Defects, Cervical Teratoma, Amniotic Band Syndrome

Education and Training

  • 1980
    • University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
    • B.A. Biological Sciences
  • 1984
    • Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston
    • M.D.
  • 1984-1991
    • University of California, San Francisco
    • General Surgery
  • 1987-1989
    • University of California, San Francisco
    • Fetal Surgery
  • 1991-1993
    • Tufts Medical Center Floating Hospital for Infants and Children
    • Pediatric Surgery

Academic Appointments

  • 1987-1991
    • School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco
    • Instructor in Surgery
  • 1991-1993
    • School of Medicine, Tufts University
    • Instructor in Surgery
  • 1995
    • Northeastern University
    • Lecturer
  • 1995
    • Boston University School of Medicine
    • Lecturer
  • 1991-1995
    • New England Medical Center-United States Surgical Corporation Center for Minimally Invasive Surgery
    • Staff Surgeon
  • 1993-1995
    • Tufts University School of Medicine
    • Assistant Professor of Pediatric Surgery and Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • 1996-2000
    • University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine Philadelphia, PA
    • Assistant Professor (tenure track) Surgery and Obstetrics, and Gynecology
  • 2000-2003
    • University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, P
    • Associate Professor (with tenure) Pediatric Surgery and Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • 2004-2011
    • University of Cincinnati College of Medicine
    • Professor (with tenure) Pediatric Surgery, (Molecular and Developmental Biology, and, Experimental Hematology) Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • 2005-2011
    • Richard G. and Geralyn Azizkhan Chair In Pediatric Surgery
  • 2004-2011
    • Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine
    • Director, Center for Molecular Fetal Therapy
  • 2007-2011
    • Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center
    • Director of Surgical Research
  • 2007-2011
    • Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Research Foundation
    • Associate Director
  • 2011-present
    • University of Colorado School of Medicine
    • Professor (with tenure) Surgery, Pediatrics and Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • 2011-present
    • University of Colorado School of Medicine
    • Director Colorado Fetal Care Center, Director Colorado Institute for Maternal and Fetal Health, Ponzio Chair for the Surgeon-in-Chief Children’s Hospital Colorado, Vice Chair, Department of Surgery

Personal Statement

Dr. Crombleholme trained in surgery at University of California, San Francisco where he met and worked with Michael R. Harrison, MD, the father of fetal surgery. Dr. Crombleholme did a research fellowship in fetal surgery with Dr. Harrison and N. Scott Adzick. He trained in Pediatric Surgery at Tufts Medical Center and the Floating Hospital for Infants and Children before joining the faculty at Tufts Medical School and starting The Fetal Treatment Program there with Mary D’Atton, MD and Diana Bianchi, MD. This collaboration resulted in the textbook Fetology: Diagnosis and Management of the Fetal Patient, now in its 2nd edition widely regarded as the gold standard textbook in the field. Dr. Crombleholme was recruited by Scott Adzick, MD to help found the Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment at CHOP. Dr. Crombleholme became a tenured faculty member of University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and a co-investigator on the MOMS trial (management of myelomeningocele study) before being recruited to Cincinnati Children’s Hospital to found the Fetal Care Center of Cincinnati which over an 8 year period he turned into the world’s busiest fetal surgery center. In 2011, Dr. Crombleholme was recruited to become the Surgeon-in-Chief of Children’s Hospital Colorado, Director of both the Colorado Fetal Care Center and the Colorado Institute of Maternal Fetal Health.

Dr. Crombleholme’s clinical interests are in fetal surgery, fetoscopic surgery and EXIT procedures with special expertise in treating TTTS, CDH, CCAM, TRAP sequence, MMC, fetal neck masses and SCT.

Peer Reviewed Publications

1. Eghtesady P, Michelfelder EC, Knilans TK, Witte DP, Manning PB, Crombleholme TM. Fetal surgical management of congenital heart block in a hydropic fetus: Lessons learned from a clinical experience. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2011 Mar;141(3):835-7. Epub 2010 Aug 

2. L.E. Linam X. Yu M.A. Calvo-Garcia E.I. Rubio T.M. Crombleholme K. Bove B.M. Kline-Fath Contribution of Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Prenatal Differential Diagnosis of Renal Tumors: Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature. Fetal Diagn Ther 2010:28:100-108 DOI:10.1159/000313655 

 3. Crombleholme TM, Lim F-Y, Habli M, Polzin W, Jaekle R, Michelfelder E, Cnota J, Liu C, Kim MO: Improved recipient survival with maternal nifedipine in twin-twin transfusion syndrome complicated by TTTS cardiomyopathy undergoing selective fetoscopic laser photocoagulation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 203(4):397.e1-9, 2010. 

 4. Divanovic A, Cnota J, Ittenbach R, Border, W, Crombleholme TM. Progression of Fetal Diastolic Dysfunction in Twin-twin Transfusion Syndrome: Pathophysiologic Insights from Pulsed-Wave and Tissue Doppler Imaging. In press 2011. 

 5. L.E. Linam X. Yu M.A. Calvo-Garcia E.I. Rubio T.M. Crombleholme K. Bove B.M. Kline-Fath Contribution of Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Prenatal Differential Diagnosis of Renal Tumors: Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature. Fetal Diagn Ther 2010:28:100-108 DOI:10.1159/000313655 

 6. Boat A, Mahmound M, Michelfelder EC, Lin E, Ngamprasertwong P, Schnell B, Kurth CD, Crombleholme TM, Sadhasivam S. Supplementing desflurance with intravenous anesthesia reduces fetal cardiac dysfunction during open fetal surgery. Pediatric Anesthesia (2010) 20:748-756. 

 7. Guimaraes CV, Linam LE, Kline-Fath BM, Donnelly LF, Calvo-Garcia MA, Rubio EI, Livingston JC, Hopkin RJ, Peach E, Lim FY, Crombleholme TM. Prenatal MRI findings of fetuses with congenital high airway obstruction sequence. Korean J Radiol. 2009 Mar-Apr;10(2):129-34. Epub 2009 Mar 3. 

8. Vaikunth SC, Morris LM, Polzin W, Gottliebson W, Lim FY, Kline-Fath B, Crombleholme TM. Congenital High airway Obstruction Syndrome due to Complete Trachael Agenesis: An Accident of Nature with Clues for Tracheal Development and Lessons in Management: Fetal Diagn Ther 2009;26:93-97. 

 9. Morris LM, Lim FY, Elluru RG, Hopkin RJ, Jaekle RK, Polzin WJ, Crombleholme TM. Severe Micrognathia: Indications for EXIT-to-Airway. Accepted for publication - Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy (2009) 

10. Divanovic A, Cnota J, Ittenbach R, Border, W, Crombleholme TM. Progression of Fetal Diastolic Dysfunction in Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome: Pathophysiologic Insights from Pulsed-Wave and Tissue Doppler Imaging. 

11. Morris LM, Lim FY, Livingston JC, Polzin WJ, Crombleholme TM. High-risk fetal congenital pulmonary airway malformations have a variable response to steroids. Journal of Pediatric Surgery (2009)44, 60-64. 

12. Morris LM, Lim FY, Crombleholme TM. A Peripartum Management Strategy in Particularly Challenging Cases. Journal of Pediatrics 2009:154(1). 

13. Shah AD, Border WL, Crombleholme TM, Michelfelder E. Initial fetal cardiovascular profile score predicts recipient twin outcome in twin-twin transfusion syndrome. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2008;21(10:1105-8.

14. Faye-Petersen OM, Crombleholme TM. Twin-to-Twin Transfusion:Part 3. Mortality and neurodevelopment outcomes following intervention. NeoReviews 2008:9(9):e393-e397. 

15. Faye-Petersen OM, Crombleholme TM. Twin-to-Twin Transfusion:Part 2. Infant Anomalies, Clinical Interventions, and Placental Examination. NeoReviews 2008:9(9):e380-392. 

16. Faye-Petersen OM, Crombleholme TM. Twin-to-Twin Transfusion:Part 1. Types and Pathogenesis. NeoReviews 2008:9(9):e370 

17. Michelfeldr E, Gottliebson W, Border W, Kinsel M, Polzin W, Livingston J, Khoury P, Crombleholme TM. Early manifestations and spectrum of recipient twin cardiomyopathy in twin-twin transfusion syndrome: relation to Quintero stage. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Dec;30(7):965-71 

18. Michelfeldr E, Gottliebson W, Border W, Kinsel M, Polzin W, Livingston J, Khoury P, Crombleholme TM. Early manifestations and spectrum of recipient twin cardiomyopathy in twin-twin transfusion syndrome: relation to Quintero stage. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Dec;30(7):965-71 

19. Crombleholme TM, Shera D, Lee H, Johnson M, D’Alton M, Porter F, Chyu J, Silver R, Abuhamad A, Saade G, Shields L, Kauffman D, Stone J, Albanese CT, Bahado-Singh R, Ball RH, Bilaniuk L, Coleman B, Farmer D, Feldstein V, Harrison MR, Hedrick H, Livingston J, Lorenz RP, Miller DA, Norton ME, Polzin WJ, Robinson JN, Rychik J, Sanderber PL, Seri I, Simon E, Simpson LL, Yedigarova L, Wilson RD, Young B. A prospective, randomized, multicenter trial of amnioreduction vs selective fetoscopic laser photocoagulation for the treatment of severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Oct;197(4):396.e1-9. 

20. Livingston JC, Malik KM, Crombleholme TM, Lim FY, Sibai GM. Mirror syndrome: a novel approach to therapy with fetal peritoneal-amniotic shunt. Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Aug;110(2 Pt 2):540-3. 

21. Kline-Fath BM, Calvo-Garcia MA, O’Hara SM, Crombleholme TM, Racadio JM: Twin-twin transfusion syndrome: cerebral ischemia is not the only fetal MR imaging finding. Pediatr Radiol. 2007 Jan;37(1):47-56. Epub 2006 Oct 25. 

22. Marwan A, Crombleholme TM, The EXIT procedure: principles, pitfalls, and progress. Semin Pediatr Surg. May 15(2):107-15, 2006 

23. Liechty KW, Hedrick HL, Hubbard AM, Johnson MP, Wilson RD, Ruchelli ED, Howell IJ, Crombleholme TM, Flake AW, Adzick NS. Severe pulmonary hypoplasia associated with the giant cervical teratomas. J Pediatr Surg. Jan:41(1):230-3, 2006 

24. Hedrick HL, Flake AW, Crombleholme TM, Howell LJ, Johnson MP, Wilson RD, Adzick NS: The ex utero intrapartum therapy procedure for high-risk fetal lung lesions. J Pediatr Surg 40(6):1038-44, 2005 

25. Keswani SG, Crombleholme TM, Rychik J, Tian Z, Mackenzie TC, Johnson MP, Wilson RD, Flake AW, Hedrick HL, Howell LJ, Adzick NS: Impact of continuous intraoperative monitoring on outcomes in open fetal surgery. Fetal Diagn Ther 20(4):316-20, 2005 

26. Merchant AM, Hedrick HL, Johnson MP, Wilson RD, Crombleholme TM, Howell LJ, Adzick NS, Flake AW: Management of fetal mediastinal teratoma. J Pediatr Surg 40(1):228-31. 2005 

27. Harkness UF and Crombleholme TM. Twin-twin Transfusion Syndrome: Where Do We Go From Here? Semin Perinatol 29: 296-304, 2005 

28. Keswani SG, Crombleholme TM, Pawel BR, Johnson MP, Flake AW, Hedrick HL, Howell LJ, Wilson RD, Davis GH, Adzick NS: Prenatal diagnosis and management of mainstem bronchial atresia. Fetal Diagn Ther 20(1):74-8, 2005 

29. Wilson RD, Johnson MP, Flake AW, Crombleholme TM, Hedrick HL, Wilson J, Adzick NS: Reproductive outcomes after pregnancy complicated by maternal-fetal surgery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 191(4):1430-6, 2004 

30. Wilson RD, Baxter JK, Johnson MP, King M, Kasperski S, Crombleholme TM, Flake AW, Hedrick HL, Howell LJ, Adzick NS: Thoracoamniotic shunts: fetal treatment of pleural effusions and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations. Fetal Diagn Ther 19(5):413-20, 2004 

31. Rychik J, Tian Z, Cohen MS, Ewing SG, Cohen D, Howell LJ, Wilson RD, Johnson MP, Hedrick HL, Flake AW, Crombleholme TM, Adzick NS: Acute cardiovascular effects of fetal surgery in the human. Circulation 110(12):1549-56, 2004 

32. Olutoye OO, Johnson MP, Coleman BG, Crombleholme TM, Adzick NS, Flake AW: Abnormal umbilical cord Doppler Sonograms may predict impending demise in fetuses with sacrococcygeal teratoma. A report of two cases. Fetal Diagn Ther 19:35-39, 2004 

33. Biard JM, Wilson RD, Johnson MP, Hedrick HL, Schwarz U, Flake AW, Crombleholme TM, Adzick NS: Prenatally diagnosed giant omphaloceles: short- and long-term outcomes. Prenat Diagn 24(6):434-9, 2004 

34. Hedrick HL, Flake AW, Crombleholme TM, Howell LJ, Johnson MP, Wilson RD, Adzick NS: Sacrococcygeal teratoma: prenatal assessment, fetal intervention, and outcome. J Pediatr Surg 39(3):430-8, 2004 

35. Hedrick HL, Crombleholme TM, Flake AW, Nance ML, von Allmen D, Howell, LJ, Johnson MP, Wilson RD, Adzick NS: Right congenital diaphragmatic hernia: prenatal assessment and outcome. J Pediatr Surg 39(3):319-23, 2004 

36. Wilson RD, Johnson MP, Crombleholme TM, Flake AW, Hedrick HL, King M, Howell LJ, Adzick NS. Chorioamniotic membrane separation following open fetal surgery: pregnancy outcome. Fetal Diagn Ther 18(5): 314-320, 2003 

37. Hedrick H, Flake AW, Crombleholme TM, Howell LJ, Johnson MP, Wilson RD, Adzick NS: History of Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy: Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Experience. Fetal Diag Ther 1892): 65-82, 2003 

 38. Coleman BG, Adzick NS, Crombleholme TM, Johnson MP, Howell LJ, Horii SC, Langer JE, Nisenbaum HL, DeBari S, Iyoob C: Fetal Therapy: State of the Art. J Ultrasound Med 21: 1257-1288, 2003 

39. Lim FY, Crombleholme TM, Hedrick HL, Flake AW, Johnson MP, Howell LJ, Adzick NS: Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome: natural history and management. J Pediatr Surg 38(6):940-5, 2003 

40. Keswani SG, Johnson MP, Adzick NS, Hori S, Howell LJ, Wilson RD, Hedrick H, Flake AW, Crombleholme TM: In utero limb salvage: fetoscopic release of amniotic bands for threatened limb amputation. J Pediatr Surg 38(6):848-51, 2003 

41. Crombleholme TM: The treatment of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Semin Pediatr Surg 12(3):175-81, 2003 

42. Crombleholme TM, Johnson MP: Fetoscopic surgery. Clin Obstet Gynecol 46(1):76-91, 2003 

43. Wilson RD, Johnson MP, Crombleholme TM, Flake AW, Hedrick HL, King M, Howell LJ, Adzick NS: Chorioamniotic membrane separation following open fetal surgery: pregnancy outcomes. Fetal Diagm Ther 18(5):314-20, 2003 

44. Marwan A, Adams D, Hiett K, Polzin W, Crombleholme T: Successful treatment of a rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma (RICH) with maternal corticosteroids: Case Report (In press) 

45. Johnson MP, Sutton LN, Rintoul N, Crombleholme TM, Flake AW, Howell LJ, Hedrick HL, Wilson RD, Adzick NS: Fetal myelomeningocele repair: short term clinical outcomes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 189(2):482-7, 2002 

46. Coleman BG, Adzick NS, Crombleholme TM, Johnson MP, Howell L, Horii SC, Langer JE, Nisenbaum HL, DeBari S, Iyoob C: Fetal therapy: state of the art. J Ultrasound Med 21(11):1257-88, 2002 

47. Cohen MS, Rychik J, Bush DM, Tian ZY, Howell LJ, Adzick NS, Flake AW, Johnson MP, Spray TL, Crombleholme TM: Influence of congenital heart disease on survival in children with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J Pediatr 141(1):25-30, 2002 

48. MacKenzie TC, Crombleholme TM, Flake AW: The ex-utero intrapartum treatment. Curr Opin Pediatr 14(4):453-8, 2002 

49. Crombleholme TM, Coleman B, Hedrick H, Liechty K, Howell L, Flake AW, Johnson M, Adzick NS: Cystic adenomatoid malformation volume ratio predicts outcome in prenatally diagnosed cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung. J Pediatr Surg 37 (3) 331-338, 2002 

50. MacKenzie TC, Crombleholme TM, Johnson MP, Schnaufer L, Flake AW, Hedrick HL, Howell LJ, Adzick NS. The natural history of prenatally diagnosed conjoined twins. J Pediatr Surg 37(3):303-9, 2002 

51. Bouchard S, Johnson MP, Flake AW, Howell LJ, Myers LB, Adzick NS, Crombleholme TM. The EXIT procedure: Experience and outcome in 31 cases. J Pediatric Surgery 37 (3) 418-426, 2002 

52. Hedrick HL, Crombleholme TM: Current status of fetal surgery. Contemporary OB/GYN. 46 (12) 42-70, 2001 

53. Mahle WT, Rychik J, Tian ZY, Cohen MS, Howell LJ, Crombleholme TM, Flake AW, Adzick NS: Echocardiographic evaluation of the fetus with congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 15: 1-6, 2000 

54. Walsh DS, Hubbard AM, Olutoye OO, Howell LJ, Crombleholme TM, Flake AW, Johnson MP, Adzick NS: Assessment of fetal lung volumes and liver herniation with magnetic resonance imaging in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 183(5):1067-9, 2000 

55. Walsh DS, Johnson MP, King ME, Flake AW, Crombleholme TM, Sutton LN, Bar M, Adzick NS: Head circumference and ventricular size following in utero closure of myelomeningocele. Am J Obstet Gynecol (in press) 

56. Galinkin JL, Gaiser RR, Cohen DE, Crombleholme TM, Johnson M, Kurth CD: Anesthesia for fetoscopic fetal surgery: Twin reverse arterial perfusion sequence TRAP) and twin-twin transfusions syndrome. Anesthesia & Analgesia 91: 1394-1397, 2000 

57. Flake AW, Crombleholme TM, Johnson MP, Howell LJ, Adzick NS: Treatment of severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia by fetal tracheal occlusion: Clinical experience with fifteen cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol 183 (5): 1059-1066, 2000 

58. Sutton LN, Adzick NS, Bilaniuk LT, Crombleholme TM, Johnson MP, Flake AW: Improvement in hindbrain herniation demonstrated by serial fetal magnetic resonance imaging following fetal surgery for myelomeningocele. JAMA 282: 1826-1831, 1999 

59. Crombleholme TM, Sylvester KG, Flake AW, Adzick NS: Salvage of a fetus with congenital high airway obstruction syndrome by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure. Fetal Diagn Ther: 15: 280-282, 2000 

60. Sutton LN, Adzick NS, Bilaniuk LT, Crombleholme TM, Johnson MP, Flake AW: Improvement in hindbrain herniation demonstrated by serial fetal magnetic resonance imaging following fetal surgery for myelomeningocele. JAMA 282: 1826-1831, 1999 

61. Gaiser RR, Kurth D, Crombleholme TM: The cesarean delivery of a twin gestation under 2 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration isoflurane: one normal and one with a large neck mass. Anesth Analg 88 (3): 584-586, 1999 

62. Hubbard AM, Adzick NS, Crombleholme TM, Coleman BG, Howell LJ, Haselgrove JC, Mahboubi S: Congenital chest lesions: Diagnosis and characterization with prenatal MR imaging. Radiology 212: 43-48, 1999 

63. Milner R, Crombleholme TM: Troubles with twins: Fetoscopic therapy. Semin Perinatol 23: (6) 474-483, 1999 

64. Kitano Y, Flake AW, Crombleholme TM, Johnson MP, Adzick NS: Open fetal surgery for life-threatening fetal malformations. Semin Perinatol 23 (6) 448-461, 1999 

65. Liechty KW, Crombleholme TM: Management of fetal airway obstruction. Semin Perinatol 23: (6) 496-506, 1999 

66. Hubbard AM, Crombleholme TM, Adzick NS, Coleman BG, Howell L, Meyer JS, Flake AW. Prenatal MR evaluation of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Am J Perinatology 16 (8) 407-413, 1999 

67. Liechty KW, Crombleholme TM, Weiner S, Bernick B, Flake AW, Adzick NS: The use of the Ex Utero Intrapartum Treatment (EXIT) Procedure for a Large Fetal Neck Mass in a twin gestation. Obstet & Gynec 93 (5) 824-825, 1999 

68. Flake AW, Crombleholme TM, Adzick NS: The Current Status and Future Potential of Fetal Intervention: Image is Everything. Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics 23: 51-57, 1999 

69. Shaaban A, Kim HB, Milner R, Crombleholme TM: The role of ultrasonography in fetal surgery and invasive fetal procedures. Sem Roent 34 (1): 62-79, 1999 

70. Adzick NS, Harrison MR, Crombleholme TM, Flake AW, Howell LJ: Fetal lung lesions: Management and outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 179 (4) 884-889, 1998 

71. Lovvorn III HN, Crombleholme TM, Drott H, Flake AW, Adzick NS: Maternal colloid osmotic pressure after fetal surgery. Surg Forum 49:481-483, 1998 

72. Adzick NS, Sutton LN, Crombleholme TM, Flake AW: Successful fetal surgery for spina bifida. Lancet 350: 1675-1676, 1998 

73. Adzick NS, Harrison MR, Crombleholme TM, Flake AW, Howell LJ: Fetal Lung Lesions: Management and outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 179 (4) 884-889, 1998 

74. Sylvester KG, Rasanen J, Kitano Y, Flake AW, Crombleholme TM, Adzick NS: Tracheal occlusion reverses the high impedance to flow in the fetal pulmonary circulation and normalizes its physiological response to oxygen at full term. J Pediatr Surg 33 (7): 1071-1075, 1998 

75. Hubbard AM, Crombleholme TM, Adzick NS: Prenatal MRI evaluation of giant neck masses in preparation for the fetal EXIT procedure. Am J Perinatol 15 (4); 253-257, 1998 

76. Hubbard AM, Crombleholme TM: Anomalies and malformations affecting the fetal/neonatal chest. Semin Roentgenology 33 (2) 117-125, 1998 

77. Cass DL, Yang EY, Liechty KW, Quinn TM, Crombleholme TM, Flake AW, Adzick NA: Increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis in congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation: Insights into pathogenesis. Surg Forum 48: 659-661, 1997 

78. Sylvester KG, Rasanen J, Kitano Y, Flake AW, Crombleholme TM, Adzick NS: Fetal tracheal occlusion reverses high vascular impedance in diaphragmatic hernia. Surg Forum 48: 649-651, 1997 

79. Liechty KW, Crombleholme TM, Flake AW, Morgan MA, Kurth CD, Hubbard AM, Adzick NS: Intrapartum airway management for giant fetal neck masses: The EXIT procedure (ex utero intrapartum treatment). Am J Obstet Gynecol 177 (4) 870-874, 1997 

80. Crombleholme TM, Craigo SD, Garmel SH, D’Alton ME: Fetal ovarian cyst decompression to prevent torsion. J Pediatr Surg 32 (10) 1447-1449, 1997 

81. Adzick NS, Crombleholme TM, Morgan MA, Quinn TM: A rapidly growing fetal teratoma. Lancet 349: 538, 1997 

82. Adzick NS, Crombleholme TM, Morgan MA, Quinn TM: A rapidly growing fetal teratoma. Lancet 349: 538, 1997 

83. Malone FD, Crombleholme TM, Nores J, Athanassiou A, D’Alton ME: Pitfalls of the ‘double bubble’ sign: A case of congenital duodenal duplication. Fetal Diagn Ther 12: 298-300, 1997 

84. Sylvester KG, Yang EY, Cass DL, Crombleholme TM, Adzick NS: Fetoscopic gene therapy for congenital lung disease. J Pediatr Surg 32 (7) 964-969, 1997 

85. Cass DL, Crombleholme TM, Howell LJ, Stafford PW, Ruchelli ED, Adzick NS: Cystic lung lesions with systemic arterial blood supply: A hybrid of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation and bronchopulmonary sequestration. J Pediatr Surg 32 (7): 986-990, 1997 

86. Crombleholme TM, Robertson F, Marx G, Yarnell R, D’Alton ME: Fetoscopic cord ligation to prevent neurological injury in monozygous twins. Lancet 348: 191, 1996 

87. Crombleholme, TM: Prenatal diagnosis and management of surgical pulmonary problems. Neonatal Resp Dis 6 (5), 1996 88. Garmel S, Crombleholme TM, Cendron M, Klauber G, D’Alton ME: The vanishing fetal ureterocele: A cause for concern? Prenatal Diag 16 (4): 354-356, 1996 

89. Kaufman G, D’Alton ME, Crombleholme TM: Decompression of fetal axillary lymphangioma to prevent dystocia. Fetal Diagn Ther 11 (3): 218-220, 1996 

90. Crombleholme TM, D’Alton M, Cendron M, Alman B, Goldberg MD, Klauber GT, Cohen A, Heilman C, Lewis M, Harris BH: Prenatal diagnosis and the pediatric surgeon: The impact of prenatal consultation on perinatal management. J Pediatr Surg 31(1), 156-163, 1996 

91. Morin L, Cendron M, Crombleholme TM, Garmel SH, Klauber G, D’Alton ME: Minimal hydronephrosis in the fetus: clinical significance and implications for management. J Urol 155 (6): 2047-2049, 1996 

92. Gallivan EK, Crombleholme TM, D’Alton ME: Early prenatal diagnosis of choledochal cyst. Prenatal Diag 16: 934-937, 1996 

93. Garmel S, Crombleholme TM: Ultrasound diagnosis and management of fetal tumors. Obstet Gynecol 15 (10):1-8, 1995 

94. Luet’ic T, Crombleholme TM, Semple JP, D’Alton ME: Early prenatal diagnosis of bronchopulmonary sequestration with associated diaphragmatic hernia. J Ultrasound Med 14 (7): 533-535, 1995 

95. Robertson FR, Crombleholme TM, Frantz ID, Shephard BA, Bianchi DW, D’Alton ME: Devascularization and staged resection of giant sacrococcygeal teratoma in the premature infant. J Pediatr Surg 30 (2): 309-311, 1995 

96. Dirkes K, Crombleholme TM, Craigo SD, Latchaw LA, Jacir NN, Harris BH, D’Alton ME: The natural history of meconium peritonitis diagnosed in utero. J Pediatr Surg 30: 979-982, 1995 

97. Dirkes K, Crombleholme TM, Whitney TM, Garmel SH, Alman BA, Connolly RJ: A model of amniotic band syndrome in fetal lambs. Surg Forum 45: 562-564, 1994 

98. Garmel S, Crombleholme TM, Semple J, Bhan I: Prenatal diagnosis and management of fetal tumors. Sem in Perinatol 18 (4): 350-365, 1994 

99. Crombleholme TM, Bianchi DW: In utero hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and gene therapy. Sem in Perinatol 18 (4): 376-384, 1994 

100. Crombleholme TM: Invasive fetal therapy: Current status and future directions. Sem in Perinatol 18 (4): 385-397, 1994 

101. Morin L, Crombleholme TM, Louis F, D’Alton M: Bronchopulmonary sequestration: Prenatal diagnosis with clinicopathologic correlation. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 6 (5): 479-481, 1994 

102. Robertson FR, Crombleholme TM, Paidas M, Harris BH: Prenatal diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal anomalies. Sem in Perinatol 18 (3): 182-195, 1994 

103. Morin L, Crombleholme TM, D’Alton ME: Prenatal diagnosis and management of fetal thoracic lesions. Sem in Perinatol 18 (3): 228-253, 1994 

104. Paidas M, Crombleholme TM, Robertson FM: Prenatal diagnosis and management of the fetus with an abdominal wall defect. Sem in Perinatol 18 (3): 196-214, 1994 

105. Cendron M, D’Alton ME, Crombleholme TM: Prenatal diagnosis and management of the fetus with hydronephrosis. Sem in Perinatol 18 (3): 163-181, 1994 

106. Crombleholme TM, Murray R, Harris BH: Diagnosis and management of fetal neuroblastoma. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 6:199-202, 1994 

107. Crombleholme TM, Shiraishi H, Adzick NS, Langberg J, Silverman N, Harrison MR: A model of nonimmune hydrops on fetal lambs: Complete heart block-induced hydrops fetalis. Surg Forum 42: 487-489, 1991 

108. Crombleholme TM, Langer JC, Harrison MR, Zanjani ED: Transplantation of fetal cells. Am J Obstet Gynecol 164 (1 Pt 1): 218-230, 1991 

109. Langer JC, Bell JG, Castillo RO, Crombleholme TM, Longaker MT, Duncan BW, Bradley SM, Finkbeiner WE, Verrier ED, Harrison MR: Etiology of intestinal damage in gastroschisis II: Timing and reversibility of histologic changes, mucosal function, and contractility. J Pediatr Surg 25 (11): 1122-1126, 1990 

110. Crombleholme TM, Adzick NS, deLorimier AA, Harrison MR, Longaker MT, Charlton VE: Carotid artery reconstruction following extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Am J Dis Child 144: 872-874, 1990 

111. Crombleholme TM, Harrison MR, Longaker MT, Langer JC, Adzick NS, Bradley SM, Duncan BW, Verrier ED: Complete heart block in fetal lambs: Technique and acute physiologic response. J Pediatr Surg 25(6):587-593, 1990 

112. Crombleholme TM, Harrison MR, Galbus MS, Longaker MT, Langer JC, Filly RF, Anderson RL, Callen PW, Goldstein R: Fetal intervention in obstructive uropathy: Prognostic indicators and efficacy of intervention. Am J Obstet Gynecol 162(5):1239-1244, 1990 

113. Farmer DL, Adzick NS, Crombleholme TM, Longaker MT, Harrison MR: Fetal trauma: Relation to maternal injury. J Pediatr Surg 25 (7): 711-714, 1990 

114. Langer JC, Harrison MR, Schmidt KG, Silverman NH, Anderson RL, Goldberg JD, Filly RA, Crombleholme TM, Longaker MT, Golbus MS: Fetal hydrops and death from sacrococcygeal teratoma: Rationale for fetal surgery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 160 (5) 1145-1150, 1989 

115. Longaker MT, Laberge JM, Dansereau J, Langer JC, Crombleholme TM, Callen PW, Golbus MS, Harrison MR: Primary fetal hydrothorax: Natural history and management. J Pediatr Surg 24 (6): 573-576, 1989 

116. Langer JC, Longaker MT, Crombleholme TM, Bond SJ, Rudolph CD, Finkbeiner WE, Verrier ED, Harrison MR: Etiology of intestinal damage in gastroschisis I: Effects of amniotic fluid exposure and bowel constriction in a fetal lamb model. J Pediatr Surg 24 (10): 992-997, 1989 

117. Crombleholme TM, Longaker MT, Langer JC, Bradley SM, Duncan BW, Adzick NS, Verrier ED, Harrison MR: Complete heart block and AV-sequential pacing in fetal lambs: The arterial contribution to cardiac output in the fetus. Surg Forum 40:15-19, 1989 

118. Crombleholme TM, Harrison MR, Langer JC, Longaker MT, Anderson RL, Slotnick N, Filly RF, Callen PW, Goldstein R, Golbus MS: Early experience with open fetal surgery for congenital hydronephrosis. J Pediatr Surg 23(12): 1114-1121, 1988 

119. Crombleholme TM, Harrison MR, Longaker MT, Langer JC: Prenatal diagnosis and management of bilateral hydronephrosis. Pediatr Nephrol 2:334-342, 1988 

120. Langer JC, Harrison MR, Adzick NS, Longaker MT, Crombleholme TM, Golbus MS, Filly RF: Perinatal management of the fetus with an abdominal wall defect. Fetal Therapy 2 (4):216-221, 1987

Books

1. Bianchi DW, Crombleholme TM, D’Alton ME, Malone FA, second edition - Fetology: Diagnosis and Management of the Fetal Patient McGraw Hill, New York, NY. 2010 

2. Bianchi DW, Crombleholme TM, D’Alton ME, Fetology: Diagnosis and Management of the Fetal Patient McGraw Hill, New York, NY. 2000 Awarded best textbook published in clinical medicine in 2000 by the Association of American Publishers.

Journals or Monographs Edited

1. Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy. D’Alton ME, Bianchi DW, Crombleholme TM, (guest editors) Diagnosis and Treatment of Fetal Disease, Parts I and II Seminars in Perinatology 18 (4); 115-253, 1994

Book Chapters

1. Crombleholme TM, Lim F: Fetal Disorders: Rudolph’s Pediatrics 22nd edition by Rudolph C, Rudolph A, Lister G, First L, Gershon A, McGraw-Hill, Chapter 040, 2010 

2. Crombleholme TM: “Surgical Treatment of the Fetus” in Fanaroff ÅA, Martin RJ Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine: Diseases of the Fetus and Infant, Mosby Elsevier:8th Edition, Vol.1; Chapter11:231-254, 2006. 

3. Crombleholme TM: Surgical Treatment of the Fetus, Neonatal-Perinat al Medicine: Diseases of the Fetus and Infant; Eighth Edition, Harcourt Inc, Chapter 11:190-214, 2006. 

4. Harkness UF and Crombleholme TM. Fetal Endoscopic Surgery and Laser Photocoagulation Therapy. In: Apuzzio JJ, Vintzileos AM and Iffy L (eds). Operative Obstetrics, 3rd edition 2006 (Taylor and Francis Medical Books: United Kingdom. 

5. Crombleholme TM, Albanese C: The Fetus with Airway Obstruction” in Harrison MR, Evans MI, Adzick NS, Holzgreve W (eds): The Unborn Patient W.B. Saunders Company, Chapter 24:357-372, 2001. 

6. Crombleholme TM: The Fetus with Amniotic Band Syndrome, The Unborn Patient: Harrison MR, Evans MI, Adzick NS, Holzgreve W (eds): WB Saunders Company, Chapter 32:489-502, 2001. 

7. Crombleholme TM: Fetal obstructive uropathy. In Adzick NS (ed): Pediatric Surgery: Pathophysiology - Diagnosis and Therapy of Fetal Abnormalities American College of Surgeons, 1993 

8. Laberge JM, Crombleholme TM, Longaker MT: The Fetus with Pleural Infusions. In Harrison MR, Golbus MS, Filly RA (eds): The Unborn Patient (2nd edition); Grune and Stratton, Florida, 29: 314-319, 1991

University Colorado Hospital childrens Hospital Colorado school of Medicince